|RANJIT SINGH||GULAB SINGH||RANBIR SINGH|
|PARTAP SINGH||HARI SINGH||KARAN SINGH|
The 16th of March, 1846 was the fateful day when Kashmir was sold by British to ruthless Maharajah Gulab Singh for a paltry sum of Rs.75,00,000.00 (Nanakshahi Rupees seventy five Lakhs) which if converted at the current rate of exchange in Sterling Pounds amounts to a meager sum of approximately
Gulab Singh entered capital city of Srinagar on November 9, 1846 and to give a brief introduction of Gulab Singh’s monstrous behavior, M L Kapur in his book ‘the history of jammu & Kashmir’ mentions the Maharaja in the following words
“to quell the rebellion in Poonch and Chibbhal territory "Gulab Singh returning from Peshawar and after some desultory warfare, the rebels were completely routed. Many of them were captured, and treated with vengeance; their hands and feet were severed by axes, while skins of Mali Sabaz Ali, two of the close accomplices of Shams-ud-Din, were peeled off their bodies, and their heads were hung on gallows in a crossing as a warning to others. Hands were ultimately laid on the chief rebel as well, and his head was cut off." He further mentions "Examples of severity were thought necessary but the cruelties perpetrated by Gulab Singh both in this and in the other campaigns in which he has commanded have caused his name to be generally decried and execrated." Gulab Singh as a treacherous and licentious person is further described as “the Panchas applauded the talks with the Jammu Raja, (Gulab Singh) which went on for about a week; and during this period the latter entertained the former with "abundance of food, sweetmeats, drinks and women".
Gulab Singh sent Dewan Jawala Sahai to the British Camp “to represent that Jammu territory be granted as sustenance to his dependents.” The Dewan met Lawrence and Currie, who after discussing the whole matter with Hardinge, laid the condition that if the Maharajah paid the indemnity of one crore of rupees, the British would be willing to bestow on him the territories lying between the source of the Bias to the Sindh, including Kashmir and Hazara. Gulab Singh was, however, not in a position to pay such a heavy amount. He, therefore, suggested the exclusion from the grant the territory lying to the right band of the Bias and corresponding reduction in the amount demanded. This suggestion was accepted, rather welcomed by the British authorities. And in consideration of the exclusion of this territory, the amount of indemnity to be paid by Gulab Singh was reduced by twenty-five Lakhs.
Talking about Muslim rulers, a special mention of Sultan Sikandar (1389-1413) is made, who banned gambling, drinking of wine, dancing of women and the practice of Sati among the Hindus. In matters of religion also, Shah Mir and most of the successors were perfectly tolerant, and made no distinction between their Hindu and Muslim subjects. Qutb-ud-Din 1373-89) even used to offer prayers at the Hindu temples.
O! ye the morning breeze, if you pass via Geneva, word from us, The League of Nations, say repeatedly say, Peasant in the agricultural fields, Streams, Streets, Avenues! sold, a nation was sold and at what price!
CREDIBILITY OF "INCREDIBLE INDIA"
INDIAN ARMY´s CRIMES IN KASHMIR
International Forum for Justice and Human Rights
- 5084 people have been arrested
- 500 have been detained under (Public Safety Act)
- 30 schools have been set ablaze in last five months
- 250 to 275 militants operating in the Valley
Maharani Tara Devi Sahiba
The Maharani, fourth wife of Hari Singh, will go down in the history of Kashmir as being instrumental for changing the demographic character of Jammu province. As is said, when dogra forces suffered heavy casualties fighting infiltrators from North West Frontier areas, Maharaja alongwith his Maharani fled from the valley with all his possessions and reached Jammu. Upon reaching the main bazar in Jammu, wailing Maharani demonstrated to the people on the streets that they had escaped murder, mayhem and humiliation at the hands of Muslims in Kashmir. This sparked off anti-Muslim feelings and people joined by Maharaja's army went on a murder hunt and a massacre started killing Muslims whereever they could find them. The majority population of Muslims was converted into minority reducing the percentage to just 6% and a few lucky ones fled to the areas of Muslim dominated areas, now in Azad Kashmir. In spite of all this Kashmir valley remained peaceful and there was not even a single case of a backlash. In this connection Alastair Lamb in his A BIRTH OF A TRAGEDY writes: "In Jammu Maharaj (Hari Singh) was engaged in a series of massacres of Muslims which some observers have considered to have been the nastiest of all in that wave of attrocities which followed immediately upon the transfer of power: conservative estimates suggest over 200,000 deaths here between August and December 1947."
INTERESTING HORROR STORY
An interesting story to remember is when Maharaja Hari Singh fled Srinagar he was followed by a group of Hindus who came down to Srinagar from different areas and hired Muslim TONGAWALAS to carry them to Jammu along with their possessions. Tongawalas obliged and carried them to Jammu and upon reaching their destination, these Tongawalas were butchered one by one for the services rendered. Muslims of Kashmir were paid measure by measure for maintaining human-rights, secularism and good human relations. The sadists were not satisfied even after butchering two hundred thousand Muslims of Jammu and adjacent areas.
BAKSHI OATH CEREMONY
Sadri-Riyasat (President) Karan Singh administers the oath of office to Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad soon after toppling legitimate Government of Sheikh Abdullah on 9th August, 1953. Nehru's agenda fulfilled, removing stubborn Hari Singh from the political scene and Indian army firmly in control, made Sheikh Abdullah dispensable.
Dogra conscription rules strictly adhered to by Maharaja's Risaldars (infantry men) to get maximum output from men and women alike. After finishing with men in the background, the officer, rod in his hand (an instrument for punishment), is approaching towards women.
MOUNTBATTENS IN KASHMIR
Mountbattens enjoying a ride in Maharaja's boat but on the pretext of illness due to a stomach bug, Maharaja avoided to see him, Pamela Hicks termed it as ´diplomatic illness´.
Culmination of Lahore/Jammu nexus.
Facsimile of purport Instrument of Accession between Maharaja Hari Singh and Mountbatten of Burma. Indian claims have never been proved and has always remained a question mark.
INSTRUMENT OF ACCESSION
Whereas the Indian Independence Act, 1947, provides that as from the fifteenth day of August, 1947, there shall be set up an independent Dominion known as INDIA, and that the Government of India Act, 1935, shall, with such omission, additions, adaptations and modifications as the Governor-General may by order specify, be applicable to the Dominion of India,
And whereas the Government of India Act, 1935, as so adapted, by the Governor General provides that an Indian State may accede to the Dominion of India by an Instrument of Accession executed by the Ruler thereof:
Now, therefore, I Shriman Inder Mahander Rajrajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Shri Hari Singhji Jammu and Kashmir Naresh Tatha Tibbet adi Deshadhipathi, Ruler of Jammu and Kashmir State, in the exercise of my Sovereignty in and over my said State do hereby execute this my Instrument of Accession; and
1. I hereby declare that I accede to the Dominion of India with the intent that the Governor-General of India, the Dominion Legislature, the Federal Court and any other Dominion authority established for the purposes of the Dominion shall, by virtue of this my Instrument of Accession but subject always to the terms thereof, and for the purposes only of the Dominion, exercise in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir (hereinafter referred to as "this State") such functions as may be vested in them by or under the Government of India Act, 1935, as in force in the Dominion of India, on the 15th Day of August 1947, (which Act as so in force is hereafter referred to as "the Act").
2. I hereby assume the obligation of ensuring that due effect is given to provisions of the Act within this State so far as they are applicable therein by virtue of this my Instrument of Accession.
3. I accept the matters specified in the scheduled hereto as the matters with respect to which the Dominion Legislature may make laws for this State.
4. I hereby declare that I accede to the Dominion of India on the assurance that if an agreement is made between the Governor-General and the Ruler of this State whereby any functions in relation to the administration in this State of any law of the Dominion Legislature shall be exercised by the Ruler of this State, then any such agreement shall be deemed to form part of this Instrument and shall be construed and have effect accordingly.
5. The terms of this my Instrument of Accession shall not be varied by any amendment of the Act or the Indian Independence Act, 1947, unless such amendment is accepted by me by Instrument supplementary to this Instrument.
6. Nothing in this Instrument shall empower the Dominion Legislature to make any law for this State authorising the compulsory acquisition of land for any purpose, but I hereby undertake that should the Dominion for the purpose of a Dominion law which applies in this State deem it necessary to acquire any land, I will at their request acquire the land at their expense, or, if the land belongs to me transfer it to them on such terms as may be agreed or, in default of agreement, determined by an arbitrator to be appointed by the Chief justice of India.
7. Nothing in this Instrument shall be deemed to commit in any way to acceptance of any future constitution of India or to fetter my discretion to enter into arrangement with the Government of India under any such future constitution.
8. Nothing in this Instrument affects the continuance of my Sovereignty in and over this State, or, save as provided by or under this Instrument, the exercise of any powers, authority and rights now enjoyed by me as Ruler of this State or the validity of any law at present in force in this State.
9. I hereby declare that I execute this Instrument on behalf of this State and that any reference in this Instrument to me or to the Ruler of the State is to be construed as including a reference to my heirs and successors.
Given under my hand this 26th day of October, nineteen hundred and forty-seven.
Maharajadhiraj of Jammu and Kashmir State
Acceptance of Accession by the Governor-General of India
I do hereby accept this Instrument of Accession.
Dated this twenty-seventh day of October, nineteen hundred and forty-seven.
Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India